Mqtt Library

1, Windows Phone 8. You can use any MQTT client or library to publish to the broker. However, you can also use other devices (Arduino UNO, Arduino Yun, Arduino Ethernet) and use the appropriate libraries to create an Internet connection. Protocol support. As of 2016, MQTT is now an ISO standard (ISO/IEC 20922). Integrating MQTT functionality into Hololens can be achieved using an MQTT client library. Because this MQTT broker is implemented by Node. Now, I have spent the day writing my own lightweight Homie 3. When publishing and subscribing, a client is able to specify a quality of service (QoS) level for messages which activates procedures to assure a message to be actually delivered or received, available levels are:. MQTT is also popular as its clients and subscribers can be any array of devices or systems that has an MQTT library running and connects to an MQTT broker. - The principal of MQTT is traditional Client-Server model. Yes the IBM IoT Foundation client library code is 2 lines longer than the MQTT client library, but number of lines is not the only measure of simplicity. That can be 2 screens but also 4 screens, hardware as input and LED’s as additional output. MQTT Client: managing MQTT session with AirVantage, sending/receiving MQTT packets over AT commands. Support multiple connection (to multiple hosts). Toggle navigation Arduino Library List This library bundles the lwmqtt client and adds a thin wrapper to get an Arduino like API. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity protocol, which was developed with such challenges in mind. It then transports that data to the backend central system using publish/subscribe mechanism. 0 # Initial release. This makes it suitable for "machine to machine" messaging such as with low power sensors or mobile devices. Many IoT companies uses MQTT for their applications. You are welcome to edit the code and run it in sbt. MQTT has other features like Quality of Service (guaranteeing message delivery), Last Will, Retained Messages etc. default_user = some-user mqtt. so now im trying to use ARDUINO NANO+SIM800L GSM module and i make it work with several other MQTT librar…. This tutorial demonstrates how to connect a DHT22 temperature and humidity sensor to an ESP32 running MicroPython. Arduino library for MQTT support, including access to Adafruit IO. This is simply not the case in the real world. Log in or register to post comments. It's been designed to deal with high volumes of messages, as well as occasional publications. e MQTT publisher. MQTT is a publish-subscribe based light weight messaging. Topic: MQTT library PubSubClient - sending float/int/bool data to topics? char convert (Read 22474 times) previous topic - next topic. If you are building a secure version of the C library, which supports (Secure Sockets Layer) SSL, you must also build the OpenSSL library. With MQTT specifically, PubNub’s MQTT gateway makes it easy to switch to PubNub as your MQTT broker. What is Eclipse Mosquitto? Eclipse Mosquitto is an open source implementation of a server for versions 5, 3. The data carried by the MQTT protocol across the network for the application. So now we create or Android project and we will use the Paho Android Mqtt Library from Eclipse, which is a set of two libraries that work together: The Java and the Android library itself. Links below. Can anyone import the MQTT library from Arduino into XOD? This Protocol is now very relevant in the Internet of things. At the time, Arduino had recently released its first Ethernet Shield and it seemed a natural fit to run use MQTT. The MQTT library I'm using is the Paho Python Client. OwnTracks is an open-source GPS location history logging service (the main components are apps for iPhone and Android. This document describes the source code for the Eclipse Paho MQTT Python client library, which implements versions 3. Does anybody know a library which is working?Many thanks in advance. CoDeSys V3 MQTT library. Eclipse Paho JavaScript client. To use ESP8266 as MQTT publisher, you need above mentioned two libraries. JFI If you want to send IoT msgs around your house/work/school/world I highly recommend to checking out the MQTT protocol system and the paho Python library as its a very easy to use system. Thank You for reply. Explaining the use and inner workings of the MQTT protocol is beyond the scope of this manual. Here is the link to the source code of Paho MQTT library. a then you must include the source code of the mqtt library in your project. The code is extremely simple and easy to understand. 1 and Windows Phone 8. 1) for Internet of Things and M2M communication. Here I will show you an example of that case, by making a mock data publisher using python 2. Open up the serial monitor. Wrapping Up. Net platform[]. Adding the MQTT C# client library. 1 client library. you can find the Native MQTT client library. You can now see the logs, for the Wifi connection, MQTT connection and Temperature sensor values. This library allows you to send and receive MQTT messages. The W5100 MQTT gateway sends radio network (or locally attached sensors) data to your MQTT broker. Integrating MQTT functionality into Hololens can be achieved using an MQTT client library. payload) as shown in the next example. So now we create or Android project and we will use the Paho Android Mqtt Library from Eclipse, which is a set of two libraries that work together: The Java and the Android library itself. - Mon Mar 14, 2016 1:02 pm #43089 Variation on my other thread Relay with button This code, which can be uploaded through the Arduino IDE, turns a relay[GPIO12](or led for that matter) on when a 1 is received trough MQTT on the inTopic (currently Sonoff1in), off when a 0 is received and switches when a 2 is received. com, where the stacks are filled with tons of industrial automation news & you don’t even need a library card! Here you can read articles from the Automation NOTEBOOK loaded with informative technical articles keeping you on top of what’s happening in. We’ll begin with the specific vocabulary of MQTT and its working modes, followed by installing a Mosquitto MQTT broker. Replace the placeholders as follows:. The HiveMQ MQTT Client library was created by the HiveMQ team in order to provide a fast, low-overhead, high-throughput and modern MQTT library for Java by building on modern frameworks like Netty for handling networking and RxJava for handling the asynchronous streaming of messages. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity protocol, which was developed with such challenges in mind. VolantMQ is a high performance MQTT broker that aims to be fully compliant with MQTT specs. This is an extension library which provides a managed MQTT client with additional features using. This application allow you to mange and visualize IoT project, based on MQTT protocol. There must be a library file something like libMQTT. If you aren't familiar with MQTT check out this introduction from the HiveMQ blog. The broker will listen on the default port on all the interfaces of the device. libraryTarget in webpack configuration. Hi all, I'm working on AVNET IOT (AWS) module based on STM32F411+BCM4343W. Net platform (. Take this app and mo. This enables you to create applications that uses both Bluetooth Low Energy and Wi-Fi at runtime (e. It supports the latest MQTT 3. While other languages provide speed, Python is arguably the ultimate proto-typing language thanks to its easy-to-use library system with PIP. Now we can start writing our main. fx release: MQTT. There must be a library file something like libMQTT. To use ESP8266 as MQTT publisher, you need above mentioned two libraries. c -lmqtt -o client. The MQTT Client Component sets up the MQTT connection to your broker and is currently required for ESPHome to work. See the magic? CSharp Client The CSharp MQTT Library - M2Mqtt. The introduction of SSL provides military grade authentication and encryption, allowing efficient broker communication with the least amount of compromise or impact to resource constrained embedded devices. hitepaper ll rigts reserved. For the arduino part I used Pub-Sub Client as the MQTT library for arduino (Node-MCU). If you are looking for an application to manage your (DIY) IoT projects using MQTT protocol, then stop searching, here it is :) With this app, you can easily control any MQTT client devices with very simple configuration steps. Install the Arduino MQTTClient library using Manage Libraries. Hey guys i am new to spark i have an old spark core with a relay shield. See Getting started with MQTT servers. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity protocol, which was developed with such challenges in mind. The PubSubClient for the Arduino open-source electronics platform has been available since 2009. js --output-library mqtt you can then use mqtt. It is useful for connections with remote locations where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium. 0 # Initial release. We will release a. Client libraries are available in a number of programming languages including Android, Arduino, C, C++, iOS and JavaScript, or organizations may write their own MQTT library. 1, Windows Phone 8. 1 of the MQTT protocol. Library Manager window will pop up. In this case, let's look at Python. An example of how to implement this using the Python version of the Paho MQTT library by the Eclipse Foundation might look like the following. js as library. Net platforms Desktop, Compact and Micro. Now enter Adafruit MQTT into the search box, and click Install on the Adafruit MQTT library option to install version 0. MQTT ARCHITECTURE. Dragino gateway mqtt. Just like browserify, export MQTT. TCP, UDP, HTTP, Websocket, MQTT, CoAP. Configure an MQTT server to test the library you build with the MQTT client sample C app. If you are looking for an application to manage your (DIY) IoT projects using MQTT protocol, then stop searching, here it is :) With this app, you can easily control any MQTT client devices with very simple configuration steps. MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is a publish/subscribe messaging protocol that works on top of the TCP/IP protocol. mosquitto-1. You can incorporate logic like:. In this recipe, we will understand the MQTT protocol and will create a C# console application using M2MQTT library to connect to the IoT Hub and ingest the data. Adding the MQTT C# client library. Go To Last Post. Assuming you have above mentioned two libraries. With Wireshark and the existing lightweight C client library published on google code as a reference point I have implemented a simple set of files that demonstrate the principles of the MQTT publish-subscribe model. It is developed in C# language and works on all the following. Solution Yes, there is a toolkit in our LabVIEW Tools Network provided by WireFlow AB that implements this protocol. Either open a new file or edit the main. Net Framework,. Hi, I’m trying to create a wrapper for Paho Mqtt Javascript library. This tutorial demonstrates how to connect a DHT22 temperature and humidity sensor to an ESP32 running MicroPython. Net Compact Framework and. The wolfMQTT library is a client implementation of the MQTT written in C for embedded use. eu you will find instructions on how to install the ESP8266 MQTT broker on your EPS8266 and how to use the MQTT service provided by iotcentral. By high fidelity I don’t mean any fancy designs or transitions. With MQTT specifically, PubNub’s MQTT gateway makes it easy to switch to PubNub as your MQTT broker. In this post you will find the Arduino MQTT libraries which i used in my tutorial where i showed how to form MQTT packets and also how to send MQTT Publish and Subscribe packets to free MQTT brokers like CloudMQTT, Adafruit. Net Micro Framework) and WinRT platforms (Windows 8. The role of MQTT Server (broker) is to filter and forward the messages to subscribed MQTT Clients. The code is extremely simple and easy to understand. In our MQTT demo, the publisher device is monitoring three buttons (Tibbits #38). Amazon FreeRTOS includes an open source MQTT client library that you can use to create applications that publish and subscribe to MQTT topics, as MQTT clients on a network. This application make use of the APIs from MQTT client library to communicate with an IBM web client using the IBM broker. MQTT, or message queue telemetry transport, is a protocol for device communication that Adafruit IO supports. Can be used for remote heating system control via nodeRED, openHAB, Home Assistant and Android Tasker etc. The code in this guide is part of runnable tests of this project. With Wireshark and the existing lightweight C client library published on google code as a reference point I have implemented a simple set of files that demonstrate the principles of the MQTT publish-subscribe model. I've been doing some testing with MQTT between B4R (an 8266) and B4A. It works with any MQTT broker and frankly we think its the best low-footprint library out there. Rock solid esp8266 wifi mqtt, restful client for arduino. Particle and Ubidots using MQTT. Specify a username. 1, Windows Phone 8. You are welcome to edit the code and run it in sbt. It's been designed to deal with high volumes of messages, as well as occasional publications. With such a constrained environment, it was important to keep the library as small as. This code provides a client class which enable applications to connect to an MQTT broker to publish messages, and to subscribe to topics and receive published messages. how will I be able to connect to the RSMB broker using C# (for publishing and subscribing). For the android part I used Paho MQTT. The introduction of SSL provides military grade authentication and encryption, allowing efficient broker communication with the least amount of compromise or impact to resource constrained embedded devices. The code is extremely simple and easy to understand. think need to make few changes to MQTT library to make it working on Ethernet- like W5100 works great with pubsubclient. Devices on the edge can use the MQTT protocol to communicate with the AWS Cloud. Haven't use any of the libraries so I cannot vouch for it; but this is 2 clicks away from Google results for MQTT library C# M2Mqtt & GnatMQ | MQTT Client Library & Broker for. u ca also check my own implemenation of mqtt(in c++) in my github. io on I will be working on making this MQTT library compatible to the OASIS standard MQTT 3. Adafruit MQTT Arduino Library Now With Arduino Yun Example If you’re looking for an Arduino-compatible MQTT library be sure to check out the Adafruit MQTT Arduino library. The PubSubClient for the Arduino open-source electronics platform has been available since 2009. In this project, you learn:. It can be used over TCP/IP networks and is very lightweight. Support multiple connection (to multiple hosts). dart/ for additional details. I hope that you will do it. MQTT is a messaging protocol, built on top of TCP/IP, that is based on the publish-subscribe messaging model. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M) connectivity protocol, which was developed with such challenges in mind. After releasing the new version of my M2Mqtt library with support for SSL / TLS with server-side authentication, the time has come to show you an example of use. You can use any MQTT client or library that supports MQTT 3. This is a simple library that supports publishing and subscribing to feeds and is great for working with internet of things services like Adafruit IO. Pervasive devices may range from sensors and actuators, tomobile phones, embedded systems on vehicles, or laptopsand full scale computers. At the time, Arduino had recently released its first Ethernet Shield and it seemed a natural fit to run use MQTT. wolfMQTT - Embedded C client. Devices on the edge can use the MQTT protocol to communicate with the AWS Cloud. Find new nodes, share your flows and see what other people have done with Node-RED. The Cayenne MQTT Python Library provides functions to easily connect to the Cayenne IoT project builder. Net Framework,. 0 technologies including a MQTT client implementation. I've been doing some testing with MQTT between B4R (an 8266) and B4A. It stands for Message Queuing Telemetry Transport. It's open source and supports the latest version of MQTT. To simplify writing MQTT client applications, WebSphere MQ Telemetry provides C and Java client libraries that encapsulate the MQTT v3 protocol for a number of platforms. libsmartfactory - easy to use library for different Smart Factory/Industry 4. 1 and Windows Phone 8. a or libMQTT. u ca also check my own implemenation of mqtt(in c++) in my github. To use MQTT with the ESP32/ESP8266 and MicroPython, you need to install the umqttsimple library. You can write your own API to the MQTT protocol using the programming language and platform of your choice. Once the callbacks are. Configure an MQTT server to test the library you build with the MQTT client sample C app. A more practical example. You can now see the logs, for the Wifi connection, MQTT connection and Temperature sensor values. With Wireshark and the existing lightweight C client library published on google code as a reference point I have implemented a simple set of files that demonstrate the principles of the MQTT publish-subscribe model. See the mqtt_stream example for more information. M2MQTT is one such library that supports all. Subscribe Next, Click on the Subscribe. libsmartfactory - easy to use library for different Smart Factory/Industry 4. Capturing MQTT client logging. 1) for Internet of Things and M2M communication. Data is visualized using built-in customizable dashboard. In order to 'talk' MQTT, we'll use the Adafruit MQTT library. For the android part I used Paho MQTT. 1 of the MQTT protocol. 1 Standard adopted for IoT by Oasis. See included examples for how to use the library to access an MQTT service to publish. Thank You for reply. u can install it via makefile. Open up the serial monitor. The PubSubClient library allows you to subscribe to MQTT (Broker) and. First, install "pip" and then run: pip install paho-mqtt. If you aren't familiar with MQTT check out this introduction from the HiveMQ blog. Download CoDeSys MQTT library for free. These use the adafruit MQTT library and all work fine. Package mqtt provides an MQTT v3. In this case, the MQTT_DISCONNECTED event is received and I'm able to reconnect successfully. MQTT has other features like Quality of Service (guaranteeing message delivery), Last Will, Retained Messages etc. Abstract: This paper present an implementation of MQTT based air quality monitoring system. Search for Adafruit MQTT and install it. AutomationDirect. See included examples for how to use the library to access an MQTT service to publish and subscribe to feeds. Copy the umqttsimple library code into it. Search Google; About Google; Privacy; Terms. The library can be installed via Arduino IDE library manager. Welcome to Library. I've been doing some testing with MQTT between B4R (an 8266) and B4A. If there is a new message on the subscribed topic, our callback method will be called by pubsub library. In this tutorial we look at the main client object, and it’s methods. csproj in the hello-mqtt-cs folder and add a dependency manually to the Cumulocity SDK MQTT. Having tried recently to implement a good MQTT library for embedded devices from scratch (there is surprisingly none which can actually do async message delivery) I found the protocol to have a surprising amount of shortcomings. I have great idea for project using MQTT. Client is the interface definition for a Client as used by this library, the interface is primarily to allow mocking tests. py file to connect, publish and subscribe with MQTT. Net Framework platforms (Desktop, Compact and Micro). In this project, you learn:. Node-RED + MQTT + ESP8266: how to drive an articulated PTZ system in WiFi. Net Micro Framework) and WinRT platform (Windows 8. wolfMQTT was built from the ground up to be multi-platform, space conscience and extensible. But prototypes that consist of several components. This makes it suitable for "machine to machine" messaging such as with low power sensors or mobile devices. MQTT Andy PiperWebSphere Messaging Community Lead, IBM Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. This page explains how to use ArduinoJson with PubSubClient, a popular MQTT library for Arduino. In this case, the MQTT_DISCONNECTED event is received and I'm able to reconnect successfully. Welcome to Library. The library can be installed via Arduino IDE library manager. CoDeSys V3 MQTT library. To simplify writing MQTT client applications, WebSphere MQ Telemetry provides C and Java client libraries that encapsulate the MQTT v3 protocol for a number of platforms. Support SSL connection (max 1024 bit key size). Collaboration or kind donations. The MQTT Clients always keep connection with MQTT Server. u can install it via makefile. M2MQTT is one such library that supports all. mqtt-spy is an open source utility intended to help you with monitoring activity on MQTT topics. There are many MQTT libraries for Arduino platform. Windows Embedded Compact > Windows Embedded Compact Managed Application Development. In most cases, you will just be able to copy over the MQTT section of your Home Assistant configuration. Net Framework,. To build the demo:. Level: Hangaround. When using the Paho library, the first thing we need to do in order to send and/or receive messages from an MQTT broker is to obtain an implementation of the IMqttClient interface. Here is the link to the source code of Paho MQTT library. The c++ version of paho is not stable. Go to the page for the individual component to get download instructions. The Paho Python Client class provides some helper functions to make publishing one off messages to an MQTT server very straightforward. This is a simple library that supports publishing and subscribing to feeds and is great for working with internet of things services like Adafruit IO. This module contains an implementation of the MQTT protocol (client-side) based on the work of Roger Light from the paho-project. MQTT Client: managing MQTT session with AirVantage, sending/receiving MQTT packets over AT commands. The Adafruit MQTT Library has been updated to version 0. Using The JavaScript MQTT Client With Websockets Web browsers use the http protocol and modern ones can also use websockets. I never touched the binding. I’ve bundled his driver code with MQTT to get a beautifully working prototype that forwards RFM69 traffic to MQTT and vice versa. I am developing a vehicle tracking device. This is Native MQTT client library for ESP8266, port from: MQTT client library for Contiki Features: Support subscribing, publishing, authentication, will messages, keep alive pings and all 3 QoS levels (it should be a fully functional client). Net Framework,. Running the example code. Go to examples -> Adafruit mqtt library -> mqtt_esp8266 Then edit this code according to our Raspberry Pi IP address and Wi-Fi credentials. MQTT-C - A portable MQTT C client for embedded systems and PCs alike. This is the demo project for Tibbo's MQTT library. Find new nodes, share your flows and see what other people have done with Node-RED. A client device connects to the MQTT broker and can publish to a channel or subscribe to updates from that channel. 1 and Windows Phone 8. Would appreciate any recommendations!. default_pass = s3kRe7. Moutinho will show you with the LED V1. Explaining the use and inner workings of the MQTT protocol is beyond the scope of this manual. MQTT is a machine-to-machine (M2M)/"Internet of Things" connectivity protocol. Solution Yes, there is a toolkit in our LabVIEW Tools Network provided by WireFlow AB that implements this protocol. This can be time-consuming and error-prone. com/ This is an MQTT Client Library written in C# for all. MQTT is a publish-subscribe based light weight messaging. XenQTT is an MQTT support library and application suite that offers clients powerful and innovative features for working in an MQTT-enabled ecosystem. MQTT Client API in native LabVIEW by Peter-daq. The MQTT bridge ignores the username field, but some MQTT client libraries will not send the password field unless the username field is specified. If you incorporate these libraries in your MQTT applications, a fully functional MQTT client can be written in a few lines of code. It can be used over TCP/IP networks and is very lightweight. The Mosquitto project also provides a C library for implementing MQTT clients, and the very popular mosquitto_pub and mosquitto_sub command line MQTT clients. This is an implementation of the MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) Client written in C. Below are two examples of getting set up with an open source MQTT broker and JavaScript and. Note: when the publisher sends a string as payload use decode() as in the example above. 1 of the MQTT protocol. Using Modbus as a local interface to manage devices and MQTT as a global protocol to expand the reach of those devices’ data, each serves an important role. Few screenshots of the setup:. Tutorial Outline. MQTT Client Library. RFM69 - radio library at github: lowpowerlab; NewPing - if using ultrasound sensor, library at google; DHT - if using temperature/humidity sensor, library at github. Native MQTT client library for ESP8266 ESP8266 is a solution for internet connection via wifi with great price, and it will become more common for IOT applications where system libraries serve these. Net Micro Framework) and WinRT platform (Windows 8. 1 and Windows Phone 8. To publish and subscribe to an MQTT broker with a browser you will need to use a JavaSript MQTT over websockets client. This code provides a client class which enable applications to connect to an MQTT broker to publish messages, and to subscribe to topics and receive published messages. A lot of vendors are using this protocol for messaging. This is a general-purpose MQTT library for Arduino that’s built to use as few resources as possible so that it can work with platforms like the Arduino Uno. However, you can also use other devices (Arduino UNO, Arduino Yun, Arduino Ethernet) and use the appropriate libraries to create an Internet connection. a or libmqtt. MQTT Programming In Depth. Here I will show you an example of that case, by making a mock data publisher using python 2. Current the code only works to “QoS-0”, but I intend to add further Quality-of-Service levels. Although it can operate in near-real-time, MQTT also functions over networks with high latency and low bandwidth. SharkSSL includes a tiny and fast Secure WebSocket Client Library. The MQTT client library handles the details of packet transfers so that you can subscribe and publish with minimal code. 0 # Initial release. There must be a library file something like libMQTT. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: